Remote Patient Monitoring Using Mobile and Cloud Computing

INTRODUCTION

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the next paradigm shift, where sensors are connected to the Internet, which collect data for analysis to make our planet more instrumented, interconnected and intelligent. A typical person carries on average one or two mobile devices nowadays. Hence, by leveraging the increasing presence of mobile devices the cost of equipment can be reduced significantly in many industries.

A. Motivation

The ECG iOS application presented in this paper focuses on the health care domain of IoT. With the advancements in embedded information and communication technologies, we can provide intensified healthcare support of senior citizens at homes and retirement homes. This type of technology would be helpful to be providing ECG monitoring facility to senior citizens, athletes and common people. By providing the facility to use these technologies in the home, citizens would be able to live independently for a longer period of time, helping to reduce costs of medical equipment Healthcare is currently facing the challenge of large amount of data that is unstructured, diverse and growing at an exponential rate. Data is constantly streamed through sensors, monitors and instruments in real time that is faster than the medical personnel can keep up with. The advanced techniques and high capacities of cloud computing, processing of a large amount of data can be performed more efficiently support big data analytics.

B. Problem statement

In the healthcare domain of IoT, patients will not have to make as many trips to the doctor anymore, since they can upload the collected data from the sensors to the cloud. This can be achieved for an ECG monitoring application on the mobile device, which will collect the bio-signal data using sensors and then upload to the cloud for keeping a record of the unstructured data. This will reduce the waiting time for the triage at the hospitals and minimize visits and reducing the cost of personnel and administrative operations. This convenience increases the quality of life for the patients as they can enjoy other activities instead of spending time commuting to the hospital/clinic and waiting in long triage queues.

C. Proposed solution

In addition to medical knowledge, various SSE Technologies are involved in IoT based healthcare applications, including microcontroller and sensor technologies, signal processing, communication protocols, system and software design (using well documented design patterns), DBMS, web services, data analysis, and cloud techniques. Such an infrastructure should not only satisfy the basic functional requirements, but also address some key non-functional quality requirements, such as Performance, privacy/security, portability, scalability, flexibility, and cost. Using the idea of IoT and cloud techniques, this paper presents a solution to use an ADC and microcontroller board, which obtains the bio-signal data from a person using sensors and sends it to the mobile device wirelessly using Bluetooth technology. When monitoring the ECG of the patient, the monitored data associated with the ECG waves being displayed on the mobile app is stored in the form of a binary file on the secure digital (SD) card of the device and the user has the ability to upload it to a structured query language (SQL) Server private database. With the proper hardware components like the ADC and microcontroller and the sensors, the solution can monitor the ECG of a person in any environment at low costs, without having to purchase any costly ECG monitoring devices.

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATIO

A. Mobile-Based Healthcare Service:

Mobile devices are evolving at a rapid pace in the deployment of healthcare services. Our system is mainly based on real-time long-term health monitoring, catering to the demand of assisted living and health fitness information provider. Thus, the deployment of mobile devices into the mobile healthcare system focuses on several significant features for a medical healthcare system.

B. Communication between Mobile Device and Web Server:

Bluetooth data transmission is applied into the system because Bluetooth facilities are available in numerous smart devices, including portable tablet devices, laptops, personal computers, and even smart TVs. Conceptually; Bluetooth is a open wireless protocol operating in the 2.4-GHz band designed for a medium data rate that averages approximately 2 Mbps.

C. Web Server Cloud Healthcare Service:

Using a Web server healthcare cloud computing system, immediate access to the healthcare tracking system is possible anywhere. The ECG data are displayed in real time on the mobile device. To ensure a seamless and continuous health tracking system, a Web server cloud computing system is implemented into the healthcare service

A. System Architecture

The end-to-end system architecture for this IoT based project involves the hardware, the mobile a application and the cloud. The application has three sub layers named as follows:

Service layer, Platform Application layer and The File Transfer and Writing layer shows how the multiple layers in the system architecture interact with one another. The hardware layer contains the ADC, microcontroller and sensors, which collects the bio signal data and this data is transmitted by the Bluetooth channel on the microcontroller to the Application layer on an IOS device. The Application layer contains three sub layers within the layer itself. The Service Layer is the to op layer in the application layer, which interacts with the hardware layer. The ECG Service is present within the Service layer, which is responsible for retrieval of the bio signal data from the hardware layer and Storing the data in the buffer within ECG Model, which performs the writing of the data.

B. Analog to Digital Converter

1) Features:

i. Easy Interface to All Microprocessors.

ii. Operates Ratiometrically or with 5 VDC or digital converter, 8-channel multiplexer and Analog Span Adjusted Voltage Reference

2) Key Specification:

i. Resolution: 8 Bits

ii. Single Supply: 5 VDC

iii. Low Power: 15 mW

iv. Conversion Time: 100 μs

C. Bluetooth Module

1) Features:

i. Fully qualified Bluetooth 2.1/2.0/1.2/1.1 module

ii. Low power (26uA sleep, 3mA connected, 30mA transmit)

2) Applications:

i. Measurement and monitoring systems

ii. Industrial sensors and controls

iii. Medical devices

iv. Computer accessories

D. Cloud Research and Analysis

The data located in one central location rather than being distributed apart in different places provides higher feasibility and data security. Since, it is an ethical requirement to protect the critical medical data of individual’ bio signals, hence the centralized architectural design pattern was chosen for the ECG IOS app. In our architectural design, the data monitored for all the patients will be stored in one centralized location, which will be separated through a unique identifier to identify the data for different individuals Since all the data are stored in one place, it will be easy to query the database and perform data analysis out of the combined data. The following are some advantages and disadvantages of centralized architectural design pattern:

3) Advantages:

i. The data are easily placed in the server.

ii. There is an effective use of space for the storage of the data within the cloud.

iii. All the related data are kept together.

iv. Data redundancy is avoided.

v. It is a uniform service provided to all users.

vii. The data security is improved in comparison to decentralized system

5) Algorithm:

1. Start

2. Read electrical activities of the heart from human body using sensors.

3. Pass signals to ADC

4. Convert to binary file

5. Binary file is passed to microcontroller

6. Through Bluetooth module pass the file to iOS device

7. Upload file to private cloud

8. Authorized people will monitor the patients Data.

9. Stop



Source by Peeyush Goyal

Relationship Between Cloud Computing and Virtualization

Cloud Computing is a technology, used by several companies who wants to reduce costs, and have access to programs and applications which are not physically installed in their computers or servers. The concept of electricity maybe compared to how this technology works, although the consumer does not know where, and how the power is produced, consumers still have access to power whenever they need just by plugging in an appliance and turning it on. This concept is almost the same as cloud computing, but the main kind of communication used with this technology is the internet. Cloud computing as defined by NIST or National Institute of Standard and Technology is a technology that provides scalable IT capabilities that are offered as services through the internet for multiple users, many users will then share pooled IT resources reducing costs and resulting to greater computing efficiency.

Think of it this way; a company that uses computers will need several systems to provide services, communicate and store information, this also means the more computers you have the more software licenses, servers and storage devices would be needed as your company grows. Behind all these are several people working all day long to make sure that servers, applications and storage devices are working properly and updated. The company will also then need spaces to store these servers and storage devices, and to prevent overheating you will also need cooling appliances which costs money. With cloud computing several of these procurement are taken off. If these company use or migrate to cloud computing they will just need the computers and sometimes a single server to run the business smoothly. All the other computing needs are then outsourced to the clouds, which are servers and storage devices in different locations which can be turned on or off depending on the company’s computing demand. No more expensive software licenses, no more need for several servers and support people to maintain all these. This company will then pay the cloud computing provider as they use the services, it’s like taking a cab and paying through the meter.

Virtualization is a technology which helps companies and individuals to utilize their computers, applications, storage devices and servers more efficiently. This can be defined as running multiple instance of something (Operating System) in something (Computers) when it is only designed to run one instance. There are different types of Virtualisation. Server Virtualisation – Is a type of virtualisation that consolidates multiple physical servers to virtual servers and is then ran on a single physical server. Application Virtualisation – an application is ran on another host where it is installed and is remotely accessed from a different computer. Example of which is desktop virtualization, Presentation Virtualization – runs on a met frame like Citrix, the application is then run in a different host however can also be seen on the clients screen. Network Virtualization – This type of virtualisation uses the network in a carved up way, which can then be run on multiple purposes, through the switch, NIC’s, VLAN’s, storage devices and other devices that can control a network Storage Virtualization – means your storage devices is then consolidated and managed in a virtual storage device, The servers where this is connected to is unaware of the physical location of the virtualized storage device.

Cloud Computing and Virtualization are two different technologies that are most of the time interchanged. These technologies will work without the other. Although, cloud computing is better utilized if desktop Virtualization is done first since most Cloud computing requires multiple virtual servers and storage devices to work or what you may call multitenancy. Virtualization on the other hand, enables a business or an individual to save on their computing needs and resources by making virtualized version of a physical resource in the same resource. For example server A, is only utilized by 30 percent most of the time and server B is utilized only by 50 percent, These two can be combined together by making a virtual server A in server B and therefore not physically using Server A anymore. This means that you save money and resources by eliminating server A from the equation.

Deeper explanation of Server Virtualization

Virtualized servers in a physical server run side by side in the same environment without compatibility issues, because these virtual servers are isolated and are then encapsulated with different layers. From Hardware layer, Virtualization layer and different environments such operating systems and applications. in Hardware layer each virtual server has a dedicated memory, hardrive and processor allocated for it in the physical server. Just like it is an operational Physical server. Most of the time Virtualization converts 20 physical servers to one by turning nineteen of these to physical server into one virtualized server instead.

Cloud computing on the other hand, uses resources that you do not have physical access to, these resources can be servers, applications, operating systems, storage devices and so forth. When you say you compute through a cloud, that means your computing resources are outsourced to vendors while you pay these providers for what you use. Unlike, if you use the conventional computing then you will need all the equipments, people and software for everything to work without problems. Cloud computing means that these resources are then provided to you by a company without you worrying about maintenance, space for your equipments and software licenses because your cloud computing provider will take care of it. All you need to do is log in to your computer, monitor your usage release or employ more servers depending on your computing needs.



Source by Nino Sherwin P

History Behind Cloud Computing in Healthcare

Cloud computing has come a long way across various phases. Clients can utilize web-based tools or applications through a web browser just as if they were programs installed locally on their own computer. Healthinformatics the wiki of Florida State University says “The term ‘cloud’ was coined as a metaphor for the Internet which originated from cloud figures representing telephone networks, then later followed by depicting Internet infrastructures in computer network maps/diagrams.”

Going back in time, we had the grid and utility computing, the application service provision (ASP), and then Software as a Service (SaaS). However, if you look back, the true concept of delivering computing resources through a global network is really rooted in the 60s. In the year 1969, J.C.R. Licklider through his article Intergalactic computer Network enabled the development of ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). He seemed to project a vision that everyone on the globe be interconnected and access programs and data at any site. Others give credit to computer scientist John McCarthy who proposed the idea of computation being delivered as a public utility.

Since the 60s, cloud computing has evolved over a timeline. Web 2.0 being the most recent evolution. Point to note here is, the Internet only started to offer a significant bandwidth in the nineties. Hence cloud computing for everyone has been something of a recent development. If you have to trace a timeline it looks somewhat like this:

1999 – Salesforce.com (delivering enterprise applications via a simple website)

2002 – Amazon Web Services (providing a suite of cloud-based services including storage, computation and even human intelligence)

2006 – Amazon Elastic Compute cloud EC2 (allowing small companies and individuals to run their own computer applications on a commercial web service)

2007 – Google Docs (Web-based office suite, and data storage service)

There are several other factors that have enabled cloud computing to evolve. These include the virtualization technology, universal high-speed bandwidth, and established standards of universal software interoperability.

Increased storage, flexibility / scalability, and cost reduction are some of the valuable benefits that can be derived, as the prospect that almost anything can be delivered from the cloud, becomes more and more a reality. However security, data privacy, network performance and economics are still concerns that are being addressed through various models of cloud platform delivery such as the Private Cloud, Public Cloud, as well as the Hybrid Cloud solutions.

This brings us to Cloud’s footprints into Healthcare. While, as we have seen above, cloud computing has been around for decades. Hospitals and healthcare systems only recently began to adopt the flexibility, interoperability and affordability of cloud technologies, especially as they implement plans to utilize the federal government’s $20 billion-plus Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) financial incentive programs.

The cloud computing model is very well suited to healthcare applications due to the volume and varied sources of information, that is necessary to be accessed quickly and from any location. After all you have lives at stake. Whether it is for maintaining health records, monitoring of patients, collaboration with peers, prescribing medication, even analysis of data, we will see more and more of healthcare tapping into the cloud. With more attention on the security aspects of Cloud, compliance to Data Privacy standards, advanced interoperability and data sharing, and with a proper DR in place, the cloud can have a real positive impact on Healthcare.



Source by Dipak Chatterjee

How To Remove Raila Odinga Virus In 2 Minutes

HOW TO REMOVE RAILA ODINGA VIRUS IN 2 MINUTES

How to remove raila odinga virus is a very easy process. Firstly, Raila odinga is a worm that attacks Microsoft word files, but it looks like a JPG file and mostly found on the desktop.

Raila odinga has some common characteristics

1. If you delete the picture file it will delete and return to where it where.

2. It runs from the driver folder in system 32 folder

3. it auto runs at system startup

4. It makes the computer boot slowly

5. It makes your computer to hang.

6. It creates new folder.exe folders in your computer

How to remove raila odinga virus, open my computer, double click drive C: open WINDOWS folder, double click on system 32 folder, open driver folder,

locate the word file in the folder, note the name. Right click on the task bar, open task manager, click on the process tab locate the name of the word file you saw in the drive folder, right click on the name of the file, click end process, to terminate the running process

Open the driver folder of system 32 where the file is, delete all the ms word files on that folder, then close the folder locate the raila odinga picture file usually on the desktop or somewhere in your computer, delete the picture file. Please do not double click on the picture file only delete it, finally empty your recycle bin and restart your computer. That way odinga is off your machine.

for more computer maintenance articles, computer security and virus removal articles visit online-computer-repairs.



Source by Nweke Chinedu

Blessings of Cloud Computing in Everyday Life

Cloud computing would be a clever and efficient way of sharing software systems through technology in the cloud rather than have individual copies of everything. Simply put, we do possess the Facebook app but simply access it online.

It is quite certain that computer networks and the wonders of the internet have permeated into our bones when most of us live, eat, study and work computers. Each day seems to bring something startlingly new in the fabulous world of technology whether it applies to education, smartphones, cameras or automobiles. Space technology, medicine, and weapons are all in the race to elevate their systems by means of superior technology.

Usage of cloud computing

Can you feel the enormous weight of all that Aadhaar or census data that deals with over a billion people? Can hundreds, thousands of computers handle all that information? While it is true that hard disks can contain thousands of books, where is it all going to end?

It is a profound mistake to think that the earth’s resources would never end. Maybe our ancestors thought that way or could not imagine the extent we would use up all the resources. The time will come one day when we would have used up all the natural resources that now exist and seem infinite like the sun. The sun itself would burn out and life on earth would cease! Yet that day is too far away to start worrying now!

Like the way we use the electricity grid, paying for what we consume, the cloud contains all the elements that are metered and payment is made according to the extent of usage. There is no need to replicate software and extensive hardware devices with each user. Costs thus get shared like using pool vehicles instead of the five of them driving to work in separate vehicles!

The cloud facilities could be a private cloud completely owned by one organization for its own use, a public service provides facilities over a network or a hybrid cloud contains several kinds of services.

Have you heard about IaaS, SaaS, PaaS and UCaaS? The “S”, at the end stand for services and the initial letters stand for Information, Software, Platform and Unified Communications. A range of services are dispensed from the cloud where the organization and management is left in the hands of the Cloud that merely dispenses. The users would access the services through smartphones or laptops just like the present and sign up the services they wish to use just like we opt for the channels we want with the cable operator.

Benefits of cloud computing

The experts believe that such an arrangement would bring tremendous benefits as compared to the present. The greatest advantage perhaps is security though we may be worried about sensitive data. The advantages of a large organization are many in terms of a shared strength like an army of people and systems.

The freedom of accessing the cloud from any point on the earth through the browser is a mighty advantage and it does not really matter what device you are working from. Costs and maintenance become simpler because you have centralized systems and software that avoids unnecessary duplication with each user.

Performance, productivity, and reliability are ever so much enhanced under a large umbrella of experts and the user has little to worry about except to connect and work or play. Three cheers for the cloud computing of the future!



Source by Bhaswati C Mukherjee